Gender roles come from social factors such as culture and family as well as from biological factors such as age and physical characteristics. Because men have more testosterone, they have more physical energy and are more aggressive. This makes them like sports, which makes them more competitive. Therefore, men are more interested in dominating others than in helping them. In social life, man is less nurturing because when he gets a promotion in his job, he has less time to spend with his family (Farrell, 1986). Also, Houston (1973) mentions that she knows about Asian gender roles because her family taught her. Houston writes, "It would have embarrassed me to see my brothers doing the dishes."
One group of people who oppose xenotransplantation are animal rights advocates. These people state that the new science causes misuse and exploitation of animals' lives (Cassidy, 1994). To develop a new medical practice requires lots of precise and complicated testing. During the process, if scientists make some small errors, then they need other healthy animals to start the experiment over. Consequently, the "old" animals are deserted and need to be killed. Animal rights activists wonder how many animals need to die due to the mistakes in experiments. They suggest that there must be an alternative way that could replace animals for testing (Cassidy, 1994). Sacrificing animals without considering the great pain and torture which the animals suffer as well as their right to live, is, according to these activists, selfish and immoral.
First of all, many people become vegetarians to maintain good health. Vegetarianism can prevent people from getting diseases. Castelman (1995) writes that many studies prove that meat, especially beef, pork, and lamb likely increase the percentages of heart disease and cancers. In his article, it is proved that the number of vegetarian deaths is definitely lower than meat eaters. For example, 28% fewer vegetarians die from heart disease than omnivores do, and 39% fewer die from cancer. The National Cancer Research Institute also found that meat-eating women get breast cancer almost four times more than women who do not eat meat or eat little meat ("Why Be Vegetarian?",1999). Hypertension, gallstones, constipation, and diabetes are also problems (Cerrato, 1991). Dworkin (1999) cites a Loma Linda University study that says vegetarians can live seven years longer than people who do eat meat. Another positive health point of vegetarianism, according to Dworkin, is that vegetarians are generally slim and have stronger bones. Knowing these health beneftis, many people are becoming vegetarians.
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