Learn the basics about the periodic table, and how the elements are organised within it.
The periodic table consists of 7 rows called Periods, going across, and 18 columns, called Groups going down.
The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged according to their atomic number, which is the number of protons in their nucleus.
The Period shows the element’s electron shell that is being filled. For example sodium is in Period 3 and Group 1. So it has electronic configuration 2:8:1. Whereas chlorine which is also in Period 3 but Group 17 has electronic configuration 2:8:7. So in both cases it is the third shell that is being filled.
The group an element is in gives the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom of that element.
Chemical reactions are to do with movement of electrons. So, as all elements in a particular group have the same number of outer shell electrons they have similar chemical reactions.
There are trends in properties across Periods.
As you look at the elements across the periodic table, from left to right across a period, the elements change from metals to non-metals. There is also a decrease in atomic radius. This is because more protons in the nucleus pull the electrons in.
Going from left to right there is an increase in the ionisation energy, that is the energy needed to remove the outermost electron. There is also an increase in electronegativity, which means the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
There are also trends in properties as you move down a Group.
As you go down a group, the elements become more metallic. This is seen clearly in group 14 where carbon in period 2 is a non-metal and lead in period 6 is a metal.
Going down a group, there is also an increase in atomic radius, which means that an extra shell of electrons is added for each successive element.
There are three groups that are usually studied: group 1 called the alkali metals, group 7 called the halogens, and group 18 called the noble gases. As we go down the group 1, the metals become more reactive as metals react by losing electrons and it is easier to lose the outer shell electron the further it is from the positive nucleus.As we go down the group 17, the non-metals become less reactive as non-metals react by gaining electrons and the fewer shells the greater attraction for the incoming electron. Group 18 elements have a full outer shell of electrons and so are very unreactive. Their densities and boiling points increase on going down the group.
SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT.
JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org
This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here:
Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org
Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool
Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool
This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: email@example.com
Tagged under: Science,Chemistry,learn,Revision,GCSE,Alevels,AQA,students free online courses video science videos,student,fuseschool,global education,ict4d,periods,groups,periodic table,group 1,halogens,elements,atomic number,protons,electron shells,electrons,electron configuration,nucleus,ionisation energy,metals,group 7,group 18
Clip makes it super easy to turn any public video into a formative assessment activity in your classroom.
Add multiple choice quizzes, questions and browse hundreds of approved, video lesson ideas for Clip
Make YouTube one of your teaching aids - Works perfectly with lesson micro-teaching plans
1. Students enter a simple code
2. You play the video
3. The students comment
4. You review and reflect
* Whiteboard required for teacher-paced activities
With four apps, each designed around existing classroom activities, Spiral gives you the power to do formative assessment with anything you teach.
Carry out a quickfire formative assessment to see what the whole class is thinking
Create interactive presentations to spark creativity in class
Student teams can create and share collaborative presentations from linked devices
Turn any public video into a live chat with questions and quizzes