In the first part of this video we looked at diffusion to move gases and osmosis for the movement of water, from high concentration to low concentration down their concentration gradient.
Active transport works in the opposite direction; it moves molecules from a low concentration to a high concentration, against the concentration gradient. This is the opposite of diffusion and osmosis. And because it is not the natural direction, energy from is required to make this work.
Active transport is carried out by protein carriers. The protein carriers are within the cell membrane and they have a specific binding site for the exact molecule they are transporting. The substance binds to the protein carrier on the side that it is at low concentration. And using energy from respiration, the protein carrier releases the substance on the other side of the membrane - where it is already at a higher concentration.
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