pru8l2-arithmetic-sequences-part-ii

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A sequence can be thought of as a list of elements with a particular order. Sequences are useful in a number of mathematical disciplines for studying functions, spaces, and other mathematical structures using the convergence properties of sequences. In particular, sequences are the basis for series, which are important in differential equations and analysis. Sequences are also of interest in their own right and can be studied as patterns or puzzles, such as in the study of prime numbers.

There are a number of ways to denote a sequence, some of which are more useful for specific types of sequences. One way to specify a sequence is to list the elements. For example, the first four odd numbers form the sequence (1,3,5,7). This notation can be used for infinite sequences as well. For instance, the infinite sequence of positive odd integers can be written (1,3,5,7,...). Listing is most useful for infinite sequences with a pattern that can be easily discerned from the first few elements. Other ways to denote a sequence are discussed after the examples.

There are many important integer sequences. The prime numbers are numbers that have no divisors but 1 and themselves. Taking these in their natural order gives the sequence (2,3,5,7,11,13,17,...). The study of prime numbers has important applications for mathematics and specifically number theory.

The Fibonacci numbers are the integer sequence whose elements are the sum of the previous two elements. The first two elements are either 0 and 1 or 1 and 1 so that the sequence is (0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,...).

Other interesting sequences include the ban numbers, whose spellings do not contain a certain letter of the alphabet. For instance, the eban numbers (do not contain 'e') form the sequence (2,4,6,30,32,34,36,40,42,...). Another sequence based on the English spelling of the letters is the one based on their number of letters (3,3,5,4,4,3,5,5,4,3,6,6,8,...).

For a list of important examples of integers sequences see On-line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.

Other important examples of sequences include ones made up of rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. The sequence (.9,.99,.999,.9999,...) approaches the number one. In fact, every real number can be written as the limit of a sequence of rational numbers. For instance, the number π can be written as the limit of a sequence (3,3.1,3.14,3.141,3.1415,...). It is this fact that allows us to write any real number as the limit of a sequence of decimals. The decimal for π, however, does not have any pattern like the one for the sequence - source wikipedia

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