Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B)
Curious kinetic orders can be mechanistically informative. Fractional kinetic orders suggest dissociation of a dominant aggregate to give a smaller reactive species. An apparent negative kinetic order, due to competition with a second-order process, leads to spontaneous deracemization of chiral crystals. Changes in bond dissociation energies can be due to differences in bonds or in radicals. Although it is often said that the order of alkyl radical stability is tertiary, secondary, primary, careful analysis suggests that the order of bond dissociation energies may be due to differences in the alkanes rather than in the radicals. Hammond helped organic chemists begin to think systematically about predicting relative reaction rates by suggesting that the transition states of more exothermic reactions should lie closer to the starting materials in structure and energy.
00:00 - Chapter 1. Processes with Fractional or Negative Kinetic Orders
17:28 - Chapter 2. Problems in Understanding Relative Bond Dissociation Energies
37:34 - Chapter 3. Predicting Relative Rate Constants -- The Hammond Postulate
Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu
This course was recorded in Spring 2011.
Tagged under: fractional kinetic order,inverse kinetic order,dominant species,aggregation,bond dissociation energy,strain energy,Hammond postulate
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