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The American Revolution: ORIGINS
QuestionFrom 1619 (when the first recorded slaves arrived) until the American Revolution, slavery played a minimal role in the original thirteen colonies.
By the NumbersAfter 1670, number of slaves brought to North America surged
By 1775, over 20% of the population in the colonies were slaves
Virginia -- 129,581
Maryland -- 97,623
South Carolina -- 25,000
North Carolina -- 53,184
New York -- 65,682
All colonies -- 934,340"Blacks"
Virginia -- 101,452
Maryland -- 43,450
South Carolina -- 39,000
North Carolina -- 19,800
New York -- 11,014
All colonies -- 236,420
Economic Growth- New England slave traders responsible for 130,000 slaves shipped in the Middle Passage BEFORE 1800
- Tobacco shipments from Chesapeake funded trade circuits
- Low-country Carolina planters became the richest colonial elites
- Commercial sectors in the north depended on sending plantation products to Europe
Law: English men, African men, and African women were "judged capable of making their own living based on the market value of the tobacco they cultivated."
~ Virginia, 1643Law: “any English servant” who ran away with “any negroes” would be held responsible for the loss incurred by the master.
~ Virginia, 1661Law: Slavery was inheritable from mothers. Fornication between any Christian and a "negro man or woman" was prohibited.
~ Virginia, 1662Law: if a slave "by the extremity of the correction should chance to die," the master could not be held under a felony murder charge.
~ Virginia, 1669
Law: Marriage between free English women and black slaves were prohibited.
~ Maryland, 1664Law: Marriage and bastardy between any "English or other white man or woman" and any "negroe, mulatto, or Indian man or woman bond or free" was prohibited.
~ Virginia, 1691
Laws against Interracial MarriageMassachusetts (1705)North Carolina (1715)Pennsylvania (1726)Georgia (1750)
Horne: "Free Trade in Africans?"
Dunbar-Ortiz: "Cult of the Covenant"