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Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started:
- extreme weather – Conditions and events that occur with low frequency, but which often have significant impact on people and nature; e.g., heat waves, droughts, heavy downpours, floods, blizzards, windstorms, hurricanes
- ocean heat content – the energy stored as heat in the ocean
- evapotranspiration – the movement of water vapor from land, water, plant, or animal surface into the atmosphere, driven by the drying power of the air
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Church, J. A., N. J. White, L. F. Konikow, C. M. Domingues, J. G. Cogley, E. Rignot, J. M. Gregory, M. R. van den Broeke, A. J. Monaghan, and I. Velicogna (2011), Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18601, doi:10.1029/2011GL048794.
Diffenbaugh, N. S., Swain D. L. & Touma, D. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California. PNAS, doi 10.1073/pnas.1422385112 (2015). Published online.
EPA. Climate Change Indicators in the United States: Sea Surface Temperature www.epa.gov/climatechange/indicators - Updated May 2014
Gouretski, V., J. Kennedy, T. Boyer, and A. Köhl (2012), Consistent near-surface ocean warming since 1900 in two largely independent observing networks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19606, doi:10.1029/2012GL052975.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): Climate change 2013: The Physical science basis. Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC [Stocker, T. F. et al. eds)]. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1535 pp. (2013).
NOAA (NCEI). Global Ocean Heat and Salt Content. https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT_CONTENT/
Trenberth, K. E. Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change. Climatic Change, 115, 283-290, doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0441-5 (2012).
Trenberth, K. E., Dai, A., van der Schrier, G., Jones, P. D., Barichivich, J., Briffa, K. R. & Sheffield, J. Global warming and changes in drought. Nature Climate Change, 4, 17-22, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2067 (2014).
Trenberth, K. E., JTFasullo, TG Shepherd. Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change (in review).
Trenberth, K.E. (personal communication).
U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2014 National Climate Assessment. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/highlights/report-findings/extreme-weather